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ویلیام بلیک (William Blake)

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  • ویلیام بلیک (William Blake)




    ویلیام بلیک
    (William Blake)


    ويليام بليك شاعر، عارف و نقاش بزرگ انگلستان در قرن هجدهم است كه او را از بزرگ ترين شاعران در انگلستان و هم رديف با شكسپير مي دانند. بليك را فردي انسان دوست، صلح طلب و آزادي خواه مي دانستند چرا كه او انديشه هايش را بي پروا در آثارش بيان مي كرد. عرفان او به طرزي بي بديل با عرفان اسلامي و به خصوص با انديشه هاي مولانا شباهت و همساني دارد. انديشه هاي عرفاني بليك كه در تضاد با كليسا و دربار بود، از او در محافل رسمي چهره اي منفور ساخته بود، تا جايي كه وي را مجنون و ديوانه خطاب مي كردند. بليك نقاشي چيره دست نيز بود و از نقاشي هايش به عنوان مكمل و همراه اشعارش استفاده مي كرد. از زيباترين و بهترين شعرهاي او مي توان به «راهب» و «گل آفتابگردان» اشاره كرد.

    يك زندگي نامه مختصر

    بليك در 28نوامبر 1757 در لندن چشم به جهان گشود. او سومين پسر يك جوراب فروش لندني بود. بدون داشتن معلم و به تنهايي به مطالعه پرداخت و كتاب مقدس، نوشته هاي جان ميلتون، متون كلاسيك يونان، متون لاتين، اشعار شكسپير و بن جانسون را خواند.
    بليك در سال 1771 شاگرد يك حكاك شد. در سال 1779 به عنوان حكاك براي يك كتاب فروش محلي كار مي كرد. در سال 1784 به تدريج و با كمك يكي از دوستانش توانست يك حكاكي را به طور مستقل براي خود به راه اندازد. او به عنوان حكاك و شاعر به كار خود ادامه داد. بليك تمام عمر خود را به غير از سه سال، در لندن سپري كرد. از زماني كه چهار سال بيشتر نداشت، تصاويري ذهني مي ديد. كارهايش تركيبي بود از تصاوير ذهني اش، ظلم و ستم، مرگ، باورها و روياها.
    بليك در دوازدهم آگوست 1827 چشم از جهان فرو بست. او را در گوري بي نام و نشان در قبرستان عمومي منطقه «بان هيل» به خاك سپردند. پس از مرگ بليك «وردزورث» ]words worth[ در وصف او چنين مي نويسد: هيچ شكي وجود نداشت كه اين مرد بيچاره مجنون بود، اما در جنون اين مرد چيزي بود كه بيشتر از سلامت رواني «لرد بايرون» و «والتر اسكات» براي من جذاب بود.

    كتاب هاي شاعر

    ويليام بليك بي شك يكي از برجسته ترين شاعران قرن 18 در انگلستان است. فردي هنرمند، عارف و شاعري كه همگان او را نخستين شاعر بزرگ شعرهاي عاشقانه انگلستان مي دانند. بليك در حوزه نقاشي نيز فعاليت مي كرد. او حتي به مدت 6سال در آكادمي سلطنتي به فراگيري نقاشي پرداخت.
    همزمان با انقلاب فرانسه در سال 1789، نخستين شاهكارهاي بليك- «كتاب تل» و «ترانه هاي بي گناهي»- منتشر شدند. از ديگر آثار او مي توان به موارد زير اشاره كرد: «پيوند بهشت و دوزخ» در سال 93-1790، «انقلاب فرانسه» در سال 1791، «آمريكا: يك پيش گويي» در سال 1793، «تصورات دختران آلبيون» در سال 1793، «ترانه هاي تجربه» در سال 94-1793، «اروپا: يك پيش گويي» در سال 1794، «كتاب يوريزن» در سال 1794، «كتاب لوس» در سال 1795، «چهار زوآ» در سال 1804- 1795، «ميلتون» در سال 09-1804، و «بيت المقدس» در سال 20-.1804

    تلفيق شعر و نقاشي

    ويليام بليك به خاطر موضع تندي كه در برابر كليسا و دربار گرفته بود، در حدود صدسال از نظرها پنهان بود و پس از آن به جهان معرفي شد و بحث هاي فراواني در غرب و شرق درمورد اشعار و نقاشي هاي او صورت گرفت. تخيل و صحبت از آن محوري ترين مفاهيم شعر بليك هستند. او تخيل را قدرتي خلاق مي خواند كه انسان براي ساختن يا تغيير دادن پيرامون خود از آن استفاده مي كند: «شاهراه هاي زندگي من، ايده هاي من از تخيل هستند.»
    بليك در يكي از نقاشي هاي خود كه به گونه اي مكمل و همراه اشعارش بودند، شخصيتي اسطوره اي را به تصوير مي كشد كه با هيبتي سالخورده و قوي هيكل، اما با دست و پايي به زنجير كشيده شده در گوشه اي كز كرده است. اين اسطوره به گفته منتقدان در واقع نماد شخصي است كه به دنيا زنجير شده و ازنظر جسمي و عقلي رشد مي كند. اما رشد عقلي او ازنظر عقل الهي و ماورايي نيست بليك اين شرح را در زير نقاشي خود حك كرده است.
    بليك در طول زندگي خود همواره با فقر و قناعت روزگار مي گذراند و هميشه اهداف بزرگ تري نسبت به يك زندگي روزمره در سر مي پروراند. انسان دوستي، صلح جويي و آزادي خواهي از جمله انديشه هايي بودند كه او درپي آنها بود. در حقيقت مي توان ويليام بليك را عارفي جامعه گرا دانست. ردپاي اين انديشه ها در اكثر شعرهاي بليك به راحتي و به وضوح قابل مشاهده است. او با بياني رمانتيك اين انديشه هاي عرفاني و دوستانه را بازگو مي كرد.
    دور شدن از ملكوت، مادي گرايي و علم پرستي، وحدت وجود و توجه به جهان دروني انسان و تخيل را مي توان از جمله انديشه هاي محوري و دغدغه هاي فكري اين شاعر و هنرمند انگليسي دانست. اين مفاهيم در قالبي شبيه آنچه كه ما سبك عراقي مي دانيم شكل گرفته و همساني عجيبي با عرفان اسلامي و بخصوص انديشه هاي مولوي در مثنوي معنوي و غزليات شمس دارد.بليك سرانجام در سن 70 سالگي پس از انتشار تقريباً 13كتاب شعر از دنيا رفت. او تا پايان عمر همچنان بي پروا بر انديشه هاي خود تأكيد مي كرد.

    چند جمله از ويليام بليك:
    - «انسان خود را محصور كرده تا دنيا را از طريق شكاف هاي غار خود ببيند.»
    - «هيچ پرنده اي آنچنان اوج نخواهد گرفت، اگر تنها با بال هاي خود پرواز كند.»





    برگرفته از: روزنامه كيهان، شماره 18755 به تاريخ 15/12/85
    ویرایش توسط Angel : https://forum.motarjemonline.com/member/63-angel در ساعت 11-01-2010, 02:38 PM

    I believed my wisdom
    ... Killed the whys as I grew ... Yet the time has taught me ... The whys are grown too
    Angel

    Click to Read My Other Poems

  • #2
    About The Poems of William Blake

    William Blake was a poet who was not very well recognized during his lifetime. It was not until his sixties when his work began to receive credit as leading a new literary movement in England at the time that was really triggered by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge who were both much younger than Blake and of a superior social class. In his younger years, William Blake's poetry was written off as lunacy by most of his contemporaries, and although he is recognized now as the 'grandfather' or the Romantic period, he was in fact much older and far removed from that time.

    That being said, the reason Blake is associated with Romanticism is because of his ardent support of the French Revolution and all forms of anti-establishment radicalism. Blake was an untiring rebel who verbally and poetically fought hard against all constrictions of his time--religious, social, sexual, and literary. His poems transmute clearly all the burring issues and events of his day and touch on issues such as the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, Colonialism and the expansion of Empire, Slavery, and finally the Industrial Revolution. Through Blake's work, the reader can deduce his passion and vision that social rebellion against these injustices would serve as an apocalyptic turning point in the history of humankind, destroying the old, decaying order of oppression and presaging the redemption of humanity.

    The poems of William Blake reinterpret the spiritual history of the human race from the fall from Eden to the beginning of the French Revolution. Blake believed in the correspondence between the physical world and the spiritual world and used poetic metaphor to express these beliefs. In his poetry, we hear a man who look's for mankind to salvage his redemption from oppression through resurgence of imaginative life. The power of repression is a constant theme in Blake's poems and he articulates his belief in the titanic forces of revolt and the struggle for freedom against the guardians of tradition.

    What is important to keep in mind when discussing or reading Blake's poetry is that a lot of his poems were accompanied with some sort of illustration, painting, or in the case of the prophecies and songs, copper plates. It is difficult to fully grasp the poet’s intentions without having access to the artwork married to the poem.

    Additionally, his earliest work, "Poetical Sketches," which is a collection that a lot of the poems discussed here are taken from, shows dissatisfaction with the reigning poetic tradition and his restless quest for new literary forms and techniques. Eventually, Blake's genius would blossom and his thinking began to be articulated in giant forms, leading to the creation of complete mythology and extremely symbolic epics.

    source: gradesaver.com
    ویرایش توسط Angel : https://forum.motarjemonline.com/member/63-angel در ساعت 11-01-2010, 02:44 PM

    I believed my wisdom
    ... Killed the whys as I grew ... Yet the time has taught me ... The whys are grown too
    Angel

    Click to Read My Other Poems

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    • #3
      Major Themes of Blake's Poems





      Opposition

      In the “Marriage of Heaven and Hell,” Blake wrote: “Opposition is true friendship.” Even the title of that poem points to his theory of a “marriage” between opposites. So much of Blake’s work revolves around the theme that opposition represents balance in this world, and a focus on one side over its counter leads to oppression and ignorance. Many people who study Blake argue that he is an extreme radical who was out to abolish any form of order that existed during his lifetime. A close reading of his work dealing with this theme will prove this is not the case. William Blake was intelligent enough, and courageous enough, to recognize the Age of Reason’s over-governing intentions and set out to challenge the notion that sensibility and order are exclusive partners. But Blake did not seek complete anarchy in the world contrary to a lot of interpretation of his work. What the poet did was illustrate that governing does not have to equal a loss of liberty, and he did so by presenting the opposition to the demanding institutions—church, state, law, monarchy—of his time. By examining ideas and objects in terms of opposites and allowing access to both sides of the scale, man will reach a true state of enlightenment rather than a repressed state where few benefit and most are held in bondage.


      The cycle

      Cycle is very similar to the theme of opposition. Where Blake argues each object or abstract idea has an equal and valid opposite form, he also contends that nature of these objects and abstractions pass back and forth through one another. Most obvious in “The Season” poems studied here, but also in many other works of Blake, the reader learns of his static belief that nature operates in cyclical terms. William Blake would use this theory as evidential support for the changes of his time, especially the Revolutions that were happening in America and France. Frustrated with a long period of repression in Europe, Blake felt it was time for the people to rise and fight back, and that a political and philosophical cleansing was not only a positive part to the progression of mankind and evolution of societies, but that it was as natural as the rotation of the earth, the changing of the seasons, and the maturity of humans.


      Oppression / Repression

      Blake lived in a period of aggressive British colonialism, slavery, social casting, Revolutionary change in America and Europe, as well as the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Being a member of the lower class, an uneducated artist (in the formal sense of the term, although Blake was clearly quite intelligent), and considered by many to be an inferior poet bordering madness, Blake experienced firsthand the struggles of oppression. Using words and illustrations, Blake fought back against his countrymen, political leaders, and religious principals(ples). The theme of the repressed is the easiest to identify and extract from Blake’s poetry. Most all of his work will feature a wearisome protagonist who is attempting to revolt against some greater being, whether it be politically, religious, or even the shackles of love and marriage. Many times, this theme is represented in the form of mythology, literary allusion, and the personification of natural objects.


      Sexuality

      There has been a lot written on the hidden sexual references that are laden in Blake’s poetry. While some of the examples put forward by Blake scholars who seek sexual innuendo in all of Blake’s writings is debatable, there are some instances where sexual reference is prevalent without doubt. Regardless of the directed gender of the metaphor, sexuality does play an important role in Blake’s canon. Due to Blake’s feeling that the human imagination and desire is oppressed in all forms, it makes complete sense that he would also draw upon the supposed dishonor and immoral act of copulation as just one more facet of persecution against nature’s intent. The most repeated reference made to this is the literary allusion repeatedly made to Milton and the fall of man from the Garden of Eden as a result of his sin for love.


      Innocence and Experience

      Similar to Blake’s focus on man’s fall from grace, Blake was constantly exploring the moment of lost innocence. This repeated theme in Blake’s poetry is almost like a paragon for a combination of all the other themes so far discussed. The theme of the separation, transition, and difference between innocence and experience is highlights the theory of opposition, cycling, repression, and sexuality. Songs of Innocence and Experience aside (which can be found in a separate Grade Saver Note), Blake continues to explore and personify this transient moment and investigate its consequences. Recognizing that in a world of “reason” or “sensibility” we risk forgetting all of our primitive desires and suppressing all of our natural intuitions. Blake attempt to invoke recognition for the imaginative spirit that lies in all of us, but since our moment of experience, has been subjugated to the areas of our mind we are called upon to ignore.


      Religion

      It is unclear exactly where Blake stood in terms of his beliefs in God. Some contend that through his works it is clear he was an atheist; others argue he was more agnostic. While it is impossible to say for sure, it is not the opinion of this author that Blake had no belief in a super-being, God-like, creator. Blake makes many references to God and a supernatural, omniscient, and omnipresent being. That being said, it is very valid to assume Blake had a distinct disdain for religion as an institution. The theme of religion appears in a lot of Blake’s work, and in his “opposition is friendship” manner, he usually counterbalances this theme with references to nature, showing his belief in a natural superpower rather than mythological creator. Blake views religion as one of the paragons of tyranny. Inventing a mythology full of angels, demons, and Gods that mirror a lot of Milton’s writings, it becomes obvious that William Blake was fascinated with religion as literary allusion and infuriated with it as a means to suppress man’s natural desires.


      Poetry/Imagination

      By the time William Blake began writing poetry at the very young age of twelve, he was already frustrated with the stale situation English poetry was in at that time. Blake felt poets needed to seek new ways to express their words and ideas and sought to step away from the Classic traditions of English poetry that had not really changed since Spenser (so Blake thought anyhow). As readers, we witness Blake play around with no forms and seek new methods to get across his message. In some of the poems, literary reference becomes the theme itself (“Memory, hither come” and “To the Muses” for example). William Blake was continuously finding new ways to express his philosophical beliefs and articulate his extraordinary imagination.


      source: gradesaver.com



      I believed my wisdom
      ... Killed the whys as I grew ... Yet the time has taught me ... The whys are grown too
      Angel

      Click to Read My Other Poems

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